Inspired by TRIZ and thermodynamics, P41 developed another way to map a technological system.
Every technological system, being the production environment or the consumer, exists to reach a goal. This goal called the system function or process. The process of a power tool is to screw bolts and nuts. The function of a cell Phone is to communicate at any place, any time with any one.
Unfortunately there could be a failure. E.g. the power tool could end up in an unwanted condition, like being blocked or spinning to fast or not enough. These states are the ‘modes’ of a technological system, just like Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA). P41 can show you how to limit or even eliminate these unwanted modes by researching the function state.